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Metadata dating the digital city: a software archaeological approach

This article expands upon the use of the archaeological metaphor within web archaeology, arguing for a "software archaeological approach". Metadata Dating three archives of the Amsterdam Digital City serve as an example of how historical insights can be gained by considering web-based artefacts as software.

From healthy communities to toxic debates: Disqus’ changing ideas about comment moderation

Article on how Disqus, one of the most popular commenting systems, presents itself in their online blogs.

Good Bug Hunting: Inspiring and Motivating Software Testing Novices

Article on how DBugIT is developed and used to inspire the future generation of software testers.

Formular und digitaler Paratext. Geschichte des Facebook-Accountnamens

Book chapter on the history of Facebook's real name policy.

Scoops and Brushes for Software Archaeology: Metadata Dating

My master thesis on how to use time-related metadata to gain historical insight into digital artefacts. The full tool and documentation can be found on my Github.

VU-BugZoo: A Persuasive Platform for Teaching Software Testing

Poster for Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE)conference ’20 on VU-BugZoo, a digital platform to teach software testing, based on a repository of faulty (standalone and embedded) code.

Sex in the city: Webarcheologisch verslag uit De Digitale Stad

Article in IP on sexuality in the Amsterdam Digital City.

DIY Handboek voor Webarcheologie Do It Yourself: Plan, graaf, reconstrueer en ontsluit!

The DIY handbook for web archaeology. In this book it is described how one may perform their own web archaeological projects. The required organisational and technical steps are described with the case study of De Digital Stad as an example.

Archaeology of the Amsterdam digital city; why digital data are dynamic and should be treated accordingly

Paper describing the dynamic preservation of the Amsterdam digital city.



Metadata dating made accessible via a simple bash script.


This little bash script checks if the files from one folder are also in another folder. This script works recursively through subfolders and does not require the same folder structure. This script was inspired by the discovery that I was missing vacation photos in my backups from my digital camera. Unsure which photos were missing, I wanted all missing photos. However, tools such as diff and rsync assume the same folder structure, and I had restructured my photo backups in separate years and occasions. This script allowed me to check what photos were on my camera but not in my backup and put them all in a folder for me to sort out where I wanted them in my backup.


Research assistant and doctoral candidate / Ruhr-Universität Bochum
2022 - Current

Researching the history of online commenting technologies and practices.

Research assistant and doctoral candidate / Universität Siegen
2021 - 2022

Researching the history of online commenting technologies and practices.

Software Engineer / VU-BugZoo
November 2019 - Current

Software engineer developing the VU-Bugzoo platform, an online tool for teaching software testing.

Research Assistant / Amsterdam Mueseum
December 2016 - November 2017

Software engineer developing the VU-Bugzoo platform, an online tool for teaching software testing.

Teaching assistant / Vrije Universiteit and University of Amsterdam
November 2012 - Current

Teaching assistant for the courses: Pervasive Computing, Computational Thinking, Human Computer Interaction, Networks and Graphs, Service Oriented Design, Reflectie op Digitale cultuur, Software testing, and History of Digital Cultures.


The National Archives Award for Safeguarding the Digital Legacy

Project to research and restore the Amsterdam Digital City (De Digitale Stad).